Vezzoli Dott.ssa Alessandra
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The relationship between air pollution and diabetes: A study on the municipalities of the Metropolitan City of Milan.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract2021 Apr;174():108748. doi: S0168-8227(21)00101-7.
Meroni Greta, Valerio Alessandra, Vezzoli Marika, Croci Edoardo, Carruba Michele O
Urbanisation has been linked with an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus, dramatically worsening the healthcare system's financial burden. Environmental influences are emerging among the causing factors of the urban diabetes epidemic. We evaluated the relationship between air pollution and the prevalence of diabetes in the Municipalities of the Metropolitan City of Milan, comprising more than 3,4 million citizens.
The prevalence of diabetes in the resident population and the mean annual air concentrations of PM10 and NO2 were retrieved from the municipal Agency for Health Protection and the regional Agency for Ambient Protection datasets. Two linear regression models were estimated to inspect the relationships between the (logit-based transformed) diabetes prevalence and air pollution concentrations, namely: (i) PM10, and (ii) NO2. Both models were adjusted for five control variables, including the qualitative variable year (2011-2018).
Both models highlight a statistically significant positive relationship between air pollutants and diabetes prevalence. An increase of one PM10 or NO2 concentrations' unit translates into a rise of 0.81% or 0.41% in diabetes prevalence, respectively.
Our results contribute to the ongoing research regarding health outcomes of urbanisation dynamics and should be considered in city planning policies.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Moderate Intensity Resistive Training Reduces Oxidative Stress and Improves Muscle Mass and Function in Older Individuals.
Antioxidants (Basel)2019 Sep;8(10):. doi: E431.
Vezzoli Alessandra, Mrakic-Sposta Simona, Montorsi Michela, Porcelli Simone, Vago Paola, Cereda Ferdinando, Longo Stefano, Maggio Marcello, Narici Marco
An innovative moderate-intensity resistive exercise-training (RT) program was tested in thirty-five sarcopenic elders (SAR). The subjects were randomized into two groups: SAR training (SAR-RT), n = 20, 73.0 ± 5.5 years, or SAR non-training (SAR-NT), n = 15, 71.7 ± 3.4 years. The training consisted of 12-week progressive RT, thrice/week, at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM), 3 sets, 14-16 repetitions for both upper and lower limbs. The pre and post intervention measurements included: the skeletal muscle index (SMI%); strength (1RM); stair-climbing power (SCP); muscle thickness (MT) of vastus lateralis (VL) and elbow flexors (EF), VL pennation angle (PA), rectus femoris (RF) anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA); reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyls (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2-?), 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), as markers of oxidative stress/damage (OxS). In SAR-RT, SCP increased by 7.7% ( 0.01), MT increased by 5.5% for VL, 10.4% for EF and PA increased by 13.4% for VL ( 0.001 for all). The RF ACSA increased by 14.5% ( 0.001). 1RM significantly increased by at least 67% for all muscles tested. Notably muscle strength (1RM) positively correlated ( 0.001) with TAC and negatively with PC ( 0.001). In conclusion, moderate intensity RT is an effective strategy to increase muscle mass and strength in SAR, while minimizing OxS.
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Temperature and pH dependence of energy balance by (31)P- and (1)H-MRS in anaerobic frog muscle.
Biochim Biophys Acta2004 Feb;1608(2-3):163-70.
Vezzoli Alessandra, Gussoni Maristella, Greco Fulvia, Zetta Lucia, Cerretelli Paolo
The temperature (T)-dependence of energy consumption of resting anaerobic frog gastrocnemii exposed to different, changing electrochemical gradients was assessed. To this aim, the rate of ATP resynthesis (delta approximately P/deltat) was determined by (31)P- and (1)H-MRS as the sum of the rates of PCr hydrolysis (delta[PCr]/deltat) and of anaerobic glycolysis (delta[La]/ deltat, based on a approximately P/La ratio of 1.5). The investigated T levels were 15, 20 and 25 degrees C, whereas initial extracellular pH (pHe) values were 7.9, 7.3 and 7.0, i.e. higher, equal or lower, respectively, than intracellular pH (pHi). The latter was changing with T according to the neutrality point (dpH/dT=-0.0165 pH units/ degrees C). Both rates of PCr hydrolysis and of lactate accumulation and that of their sum, expressed as delta approximately P/deltat, were highly T-dependent. By contrast, the pHe-dependence of the muscle energy balance was nil or extremely limited at 15 and 20 degrees C, respectively, but remarkable at 25 degrees C (with a depression of the ATP resynthesis rate up to 25% with a decrease of pHe from 7.9 to 7.0). The pHe-dependent reduction of metabolic rate was associated with a down-regulation of anaerobic glycolysis due to reduced activity of ion-transporters controlling acid-base balance and/or to a shift from Na(+)/H(+) to a more efficient Na(+)-dependent Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. Uncoupling of glycogenolysis from P-metabolite concentrations, both as function of T (>or=20 degrees C) and of pHe (
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Effects of temperature and extracellular pH on metabolites: kinetics of anaerobic metabolism in resting muscle by 31P- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.
J Exp Biol2003 Sep;206(Pt 17):3043-52.
Vezzoli Alessandra, Gussoni Maristella, Greco Fulvia, Zetta Lucia
Environmental stress, such as low temperature, extracellular acidosis and anoxia, is known to play a key role in metabolic regulation. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the combined temperature-pH regulation of metabolic rate in frog muscle, i.e. an anoxia-tolerant tissue. The rate of exergonic metabolic processes occurring in resting isolated muscles was determined at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C as well as at extracellular pH values higher (7.9), similar (7.3) and lower (7.0) than the physiological intracellular pH. (31)P and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy high-resolution measurements were carried out at 4.7 T in isolated frog (Rana esculenta) gastrocnemius muscle during anoxia to assess, by means of reference compounds, the concentration of all phosphate metabolites and lactate. Intra- and extracellular pH was also determined. In the range of examined temperatures (15-25 degrees C), the temperature dependence of anaerobic glycolysis was found to be higher than that of PCr depletion (Q(10)=2.3). High-energy phosphate metabolism was confirmed to be the initial and preferential energy source. The rate of phosphocreatine hydrolysis did not appear to be affected by extracellular pH changes. By contrast, independent of the intracellular pH value, at the higher temperature (25 degrees C) a lowering of the extracellular pH from 7.9 to 7.0 caused a depression in lactate accumulation. This mechanism was ascribed to the transmembrane proton concentration gradient. This parameter was demonstrated to regulate glycolysis, probably through a reduced lactate efflux, depending on the activity of the lactate-H(+) co-transporter. The calculated intracellular buffer capacity was related to intra- and extracellular pH and temperature. At the experimental extracellular pH of 7.9 and at a temperature of 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C, calculated intracellular buffering capacity was 29.50 micromol g(-1) pH unit(-1) and 69.98 micromol g(-1) pH unit(-1), respectively.
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